Anyona S. Gichuru, Mushroom Farming Value Chain Analysis Report, 2012 - Kingfisher faculty of commercial enterprise and finance mushroom farm – a pre-feasibility have a look at page 10 d. Porter’s five forces a. Bargaining energy of providers there are restrained numbers of spawn manufacturers within the market but there exists some backyard mushroom groups operated with the aid of a few humans in the network. The limited range of principal spawn providers in the marketplace could be a sign of strong provider bargaining electricity, however the reality that providers and manufacturers hold excellent relationships, coupled with the life of alternate suppliers, reduces supplier bargaining strength. To further decrease the bargaining energy of spawn producers, the business could produce their own spawn, boom their expertise approximately distinctive suppliers’ gives, and locate exchange providers. Mushroom supply alternatively is concentrated in few cities and municipalities including bagiuo, urdaneta, villasis, and many others. A few mushroom manufacturers have their own touch sellers while a few markets their personal produce. The variety of current manufacturers as well as sellers inside the market outcomes to a now not too strong dealer bargaining power on mushroom deliver. B. Bargaining electricity of customers in pangasinan, some customers normally buys in big extent however maximum of them do no longer. There may be no attention of customers since customers were from exceptional towns and municipalities in pangasinan and are from specific area (families, eating places, wholesalers, retailers, etc.). Therefore, the bargaining electricity of buyers isn't excessive. To further lessen the force’s effect, the commercial enterprise can create relationships with consumers and maintain those relationships via imparting desirable first-rate mushrooms, maintaining great thru the supply channel, being dependable, communicating, and instructing the consumers. To hold a consistent supply and to help market the mushrooms, royalty mushroom producer can create partnerships with other manufacturers (i.E., Dealer for other growers or create advertising cooperatives). Kingfisher school of commercial enterprise and finance mushroom farm – a pre-feasibility take a look at page 11 c. Danger of recent entrants the information that there had been few inactive mushroom growers within the goal network (mangaldan) and there may be a high demand of mushroom products in pangasinan, new entrants are predicted to get up. Growing mushroom does no longer require excessive preliminary investments and fixed fees. Authorities groups even promote growing mushrooms as a method of livelihood for small growers. And the truth that running a mushroom farm proves to be worthwhile draws others to go into the mushroom enterprise. Threats of recent entrants may be decreased by employing strategies in growing high satisfactory mushrooms which might be green and extra effective. Rmp might take part in today's seminars about green and more productive manner of cultivating mushrooms that might be carried out by way of the authorities companies or a few personal establishments. This will improve the performance of the operation. It would additionally help to create marketing or brand picture on account that most effective best mushrooms might be provided to customers. D. Hazard of substitutes there are substitutes for straw mushrooms, however this typically used form of mushroom sticks out for its very own flavor, dietary houses, and availability. Straw mushroom is experiencing the most rapid increase in demand amongst different mushrooms lines also because of its unique taste and availability. Veggies have been also taken into consideration alternatively product for mushrooms. A good way to lessen the hazard for substitutes, the commercial enterprise will promote mushroom intake even greater inside the community via accentuating the fitness and different blessings of mushroom consumption. The commercial enterprise may also observe the customer’s options with the aid of accomplishing surveys with a purpose to realize the way to dominate from alternative products. Kingfisher school of commercial enterprise and finance mushroom farm – a pre-feasibility study page 12 e. Competitive competition among current gamers the mushroom enterprise isn't considered competitive within the view of the growers. In some unspecified time in the future they even assist each different in discovering techniques and technique in developing mushrooms. But, the opinion about competitiveness is inspired by the dimensions of the enterprise and the range of growers in a given region. Tight opposition for mushrooms arises, in particular in wholesale markets. The spawn producers also experience a good competition among them. The following persons are the principal spawn providers in pangasinan. Call deal with business contact range milo abrocio pias, mapandan spawn manufacturer, mushroom grower, mushroom provider 09153768841 arlene daroy baloling, mapandan spawn producer, mushroom grower, mushroom supplier 09474872095 gabriel velasco pias, mapandan spawn producer, mushroom grower marlyn de guzman sagur, mapandan spawn producer, mushroom grower one spawn maker is placed at manaoag and any other one also exists in malasiqui, pangasinan. To compete, the commercial enterprise assignment will try to develop a spot marketplace for excessive- first-rate sparkling products or produce a value-introduced product. Excessive excellent standards, first rate carrier, and constant supply will assist differentiate competition and create sturdy relationships, specially with nearby customers. Kingfisher school of business and finance mushroom farm – a pre-feasibility take a look at page 13 e. Swot evaluation a. Strengths ease of formation any man or woman or organization of humans that has hobbies in developing mushrooms can easily input the enterprise with out difficulty. Whether or not it is able to be a small outdoor commercial enterprise or a big scale mushroom manufacturing facility. There aren't any strict rules or ordinances that restrict one from forming a mushroom cultivating organisation. ?? small initial capital wished mushroom cultivation does now not require a big initial capital requirement so one can operate. Equipments wished, mushroom incubation residence, laboratory materials and the laboratory room to be used in making spawns, fruiting luggage or beds, and initial raw substances (for use for a length of three months) simplest expenses a complete of about hypertext preprocessor 2 hundred, 000.00. These have been the most effective initial asset requirements. ?? small operating fee minimum running fee is predicted to be spent from spawn making to mushroom cultivation. Spawn luggage and different substances to be used as fruiting beds also are to be had at low expenses. Spawns may be crafted from scrap merchandise like saw dust, tobacco midribs, hay stalk, rice bran, and other agricultural wastes. Other operational charges (labor and utilities fees) related to upkeep and monitoring of cultivated mushroom became also reasonably low. ?? larger supply of mushroom spawns it's miles expected that approximately 2,000 - 3000 bottles of mushrooms spawns might be produced day by day. Mushroom spawn production is bigger compared to other mushroom spawn growers making an average of 1000 - 2000 bottles an afternoon. Big supply will attract mushroom kingfisher school of commercial enterprise and finance mushroom farm – a pre-feasibility look at page 14 growers to contractually purchase spawns from the organisation considering the fact that it is able to deliver their mushroom spawn needs. The enterprise may even attention in pangasinan, promoting spawns to growers who've problems in making their personal spawns and to those who've no get entry to to spawn makers. ?? tax advantage the nature of the enterprise allows it to revel in the privilege of being exempted from vat. Sale of agricultural meals products of their authentic kingdom, or yielding or producing meals for human intake is a vat exempt transaction (sales regulations no. Sixteen- 2005, sec.4.109-1). ?? small range of human labor wished a production of an average 3000-4000 bottle of spawns an afternoon will only require 1 complete time worker and three component-time employees. Mushroom cultivation on the other hand requires one element time grower. Several element time workers can also be employed at some point of harvest periods relying on the quantity of mushrooms grown. ?? extensive and temperature regulated business place the commercial enterprise could be placed in a 1.5 hectare mango orchard, as a consequence offering a bigger place to operate. Mango orchard clearly makes a groovy color properly for cultivating mushroom abundantly. ?? first mushroom farm in mangaldan being first method a big opportunity to seize the eyes of mangaldan humans. It'll introduce mushroom farming to humans and could use them as contractual growers. Apart from that, mushroom growers a good way to exist impartial from the assignment could be a good marketplace for mushroom spawns. ?? big earnings margin growing fashion for instant meals gadgets kingfisher college of enterprise and finance mushroom farm – a pre-feasibility have a look at web page 15 b. Weaknesses low production for the duration of wet season mushroom farming that uses out of doors cultivation cannot produce mushrooms at some point of wet seasons. Too much publicity to sunlight and too much publicity to water can have an effect on the growth of mushrooms. And seeing that outside cultivation calls for mushroom beds to be positioned on the bare floor, it's miles prone to heavy rains or maybe floods. ?? lack of technical abilities in making spawns the proponents have abundant knowledge and researches about the business however they might be lacking in terms of the real experience of developing mushrooms and making their own spawns. ?? lack of self belief through purchaser in merchandise given that mushroom growers/sellers have already got their depended on providers, it'd be hard for the new assignment to convince them to patronize their products. ?? mushrooms get without difficulty spoiled. Sparkling and unprocessed mushrooms handiest last for 3 to 4 days most effective. C. Possibilities high call for of planting spawns and mushrooms municipalities and cities all over pangasinan and even in other provinces are buying spawns to be planted on existing spawn producers in mapandan. The demand is super that mushroom growers might come from some distance provinces with the intention to buy spawns. Mushroom products are also in demand. Unbiased mushroom growers even hire contractual growers on the way to produce a larger quantity of mushroom products as a way to meet the mushroom desires of clients in pangasinan. Kingfisher college of business and finance mushroom farm – a pre-feasibility have a look at web page 16 low deliver of planting spawns and mushrooms there are currently four essential spawn producers in mapandan and one in manaoag and in malasiqui. Those manufacturers can make 1500 to 2000 bottles of spawns every day (which is equal to 300 - 400 planting baggage costing hypertext preprocessor 25.00 each). The deliver of planting spawns does no longer meet the high call for of planting spawns from municipalities and towns all over pangasinan and even in other provinces. Mushroom sellers however, have been journeying unique baranggays and municipalities in order to shop for mushroom merchandise from growers (these mushrooms have been allotted by to dealers to their marketing channels). But since the deliver may be very low, spawn makers even rent contractual growers that might grow mushrooms for the mushroom supply to increase. ?? undertake brand new technology contemporary researches on effective and efficient mushroom cultivation would assist the commercial enterprise to develop mushrooms that would yield abundantly. ?? ease of entry there is an easy access for the reason that it's miles the primary mushroom farm in mangaldan. D. Threats vegetable carriers vegetable companies may be one of the feasible threats due to the substitutability of their products. The greater the bogus items, the extra risks the commercial enterprise may additionally face. ?? climate and fortuitous occasion fortuitous occasions are distinctly uncertain activities that could cause either through the acts of god or acts of man. Moreover, those activities are beyond the manage of the commercial enterprise, thus the proponents taken into consideration it as one of the threats. Kingfisher faculty of enterprise and finance mushroom farm – a pre-feasibility examine web page 17 bankruptcy 3 company profile a. Imaginative and prescient royalty mushroom manufacturers ambitions to be the marketplace leader of fresh straw mushroom and mushroom spawns with low charge and satisfactory first-rate so one can be set up on the way to supply the mushroom and spawn needs of growers and customers inside and outside pangasinan and which also pursuits to enter the international market for mushrooms. B. Venture to provide excellent mushrooms and to sell mushrooms as a part of the daily weight loss plan of the household purchasers. C. History royalty mushroom producer (rmp) is a enterprise mission concerned inside the mushroom production (mushroom itself and spawns). It will be positioned in mangaldan, pangasinan (it'd grow to be the first actual mushroom farm in town). The business challenge focuses on introducing to the network an unbiased mushroom commercial enterprise on the way to offer planting spawns and mushrooms for sale. The commercial enterprise could be inside the shape of wellknown partnership of rose ann aragon, rosemarie b. Bañez, ruth m. Cabungan, jerry de vera, and donald velasquez. The source of financing the project will come from the partner’s capital contributions. Kingfisher college of commercial enterprise and finance mushroom farm – a pre-feasibility take a look at page 18 d. Commercial enterprise name and emblem the business may be named as royalty mushroom manufacturer. The name become utilized by the proponents to show what the commercial enterprise does and what is all of it approximately. Essentially, the project is a kind of organisation that deals with the production and distribution of exceptional mushroom products. The phrase royalty become extensively utilized to expose that the products that we provide are the fine among all others. Considering only the satisfactory best products were served to royalties for the duration of the antique instances, the business consequently strives to provide royalty mushroom to its consumers. Hence, the name royalty mushroom manufacturers changed into coined. E. Region royalty mushroom manufacturer will be placed at navaluan, mangaldan, pangasinan. The vicinity is presently a mango orchard owned by the velasquez circle of relatives. The mango orchard has a complete plot measuring 1.5 hectares of land. The region for the said enterprise might be a suitable region for developing mushrooms because the trees could help in regulating the temperature in which the fruiting beds might be positioned. Substrate substances consisting of saw dirt, dried banana leaves and other agricultural wastes utilized in mushroom cultivation have been also accessible inside the vicinity. Kingfisher college of commercial enterprise and finance mushroom farm – a pre-feasibility take a look at web page 19 discern 1: royalty mushroom producer (region map) f. Long-variety targets the enterprise will be installed if you want to help in supplying the demand of mushroom merchandise not handiest in pangasinan and nearby provinces but to the entire u . S . A . As well. It goals to penetrate global markets, to be the fundamental supplier and the leader in producing exceptional mushroom merchandise, and to increase the wealth of its proprietors. So that you can gain our goals, the following lengthy – variety goals were made via the proponents; the enterprise pursuits to gain a 10 increase on its annual sales. ?? with a purpose to seize market percentage primarily based on the following percentages: 1 st year of operations 25 of the market 2 nd 12 months of operations 40 of the marketplace following years 65 of the market the commercial enterprise also targets to penetrate the global market because it stroke the marketplace leadership in domestic. Kingfisher faculty of commercial enterprise and finance mushroom farm – a pre-feasibility study web page 20 bankruptcy 4 market feasibility a. Area profile determine 2: map of pangasinan displaying mangaldan mangaldan is a philippine municipality. It's miles located within the province of pangasinan in region i ilocos vicinity that is part of the luzon organization of islands. Mangaldan is seated approximately 19 km east-north-east of province capital lingayen and approximately 177 km north-west of philippine fundamental capital manila. The geographic coordinates of mangaldan are 16° four' 0'' n, one hundred twenty° 24' zero'' e. Administratively the municipality of mangaldan is subdivided into 31 barangays. According to the 2007 census, mangaldan has a populace of 90,391 residents and belongs to the 294 emerging towns and municipalities within the philippines that have greater than 50,000 inhabitants however did now not reach one hundred,000 yet. Based on the quantity of its inhabitants mangaldan is variety 184 of the maximum populous cities of the philippines and at one hundred fifteen in luzon group of islands and at 7 of the maximum populous cities of province pangasinan. With a place of 48.Forty seven km² mangaldan occupies a pretty small urban location. Hence, there's a excessive population density. In mangaldan, by way of average, 1,864.89 human beings stay in one rectangular kilometer. With this cost, mangaldan is handiest variety 63 in luzon and is nationally ranked 74th of the kingfisher faculty of enterprise and finance mushroom farm – a pre-feasibility take a look at page 21 maximum densely populated cities within the philippines. 12 according to the philippine earnings class for provinces, towns and municipalities mangaldan is a 1st elegance municipality. The urbanization reputation of mangaldan is classified as city. Their merchandise encompass processed meat, native desserts, bagoong/patis, cutleries and lots of more. Thirteen among the bigger cities and municipalities inside the community of mangaldan there are san carlos city 16 km south-south-west, baguio city (benguet) 44 km north-north- east, mabalacat (pampanga) ninety six km south-south-east, cabanatuan town(nueva ecija) 88 km south-east, dagupan metropolis 7 km west-south-west, town of tarlac (tarlac) 69 km south-south- east, san jose metropolis (nueva ecija) 71 km east-south-east, malasiqui 16 km south, city of urdaneta 20 km east-south-east as well as 86 km south-south-east of mangaldan the municipality concepcion(tarlac). B. Goal marketplace mushroom growers in pangasinan and different towns and municipalities outdoor pangasinan can be the goal market for mushroom planting spawns. The prevailing dealers and wholesalers of mushroom in pangasinan are the goal marketplace for the mushroom products. In keeping with mr. Rey rivera of dti - vicinity i workplace (arellano st., Dagupan town), it is predicted that there's a daily call for of 10 kilograms of mushroom in each cities and municipalities in pangasinan. However the active marketplace for mushroom products can be located in bagiuo and urdaneta where there is a awareness of consumers and dealers of mushroom and mushrooms had been bought in voluminous quantities. Energetic markets of mushrooms also can be found in some municipalities in pangasinan, like in aguilar, villasis, malasiqui, alaminos, sta. Barbara, san fabian, etc. Mushroom merchandise available on these areas come in small portions only. 12 13 /towns-and-municipalities/mangaldan/ kingfisher faculty of commercial enterprise and finance mushroom farm – a pre-feasibility observe page 22 royalty mushroom manufacturer objectives to get an inexpensive percentage marketplace (about 40 to sixty five of the marketplace) in bagiuo and urdaneta. It's going to also extend its target market on a few regions outside pangasinan after having an inexpensive marketplace share on the active markets right here in pangasinan. C. Main competitor’s profile the primary competitors of the business are the opposite mushroom spawn makers in different city. Some of these spawn makers are taken into consideration as impartial mushroom growers for they do no longer just make spawns, but they also cultivate mushrooms and sell their very own mushrooms as well as the produce of other growers of their place (mushroom sellers). Based totally from the interviews that the proponents have collected, the subsequent are a few statistics of some current spawn manufacturers. Name address commercial enterprise contact variety milo abrocio pias, mapandan spawn manufacturer, mushroom grower, mushroom dealer 09153768841 arlene daroy baloling, mapandan spawn producer, mushroom grower, mushroom dealer 09474872095 gabriel velasco pias, mapandan spawn manufacturer, mushroom grower marlyn de guzman sagur, mapandan spawn producer, mushroom grower currently, there are 4 mushroom dealers in mapandan. One mushroom provider/spawn manufacturer also exists in baritaw, manaoag, pangasinan and every other one is positioned in malasiqui, pangasinan. Under are the strengths and weaknesses of some of the competition: kingfisher faculty of business and finance mushroom farm – a pre-feasibility examine web page 23 1. Milo abrocio pias, mapandan spawn maker, mushroom producer, mushroom supplier strengths educated in mushroom cultivation (the wife of mr. Abrocio is an agriculturist who studied mushroom cultivation and spawn making) large supply of planting spawns as compared to different spawn makers. They are able to make 1,600 bottles of spawns consistent with day the use of a pressure cooker that has a most ability of 160 bottles per batch. ?? green on the subject of their operations a. They best use one strain cooker but can deliver a larger volume of spawns in bottles in an afternoon in comparison to others. B. They have got fewer employees compared to different spawn makers. (They employed handiest one complete time employee, and several out of college youths) they have got many normal clients coming from outside and inside pangasinan. They had been consistent with their deliver of spawns and mushroom merchandise. ?? they specialise in making spawns and hires contractual growers to cultivate mushrooms for them. Weaknesses they could not meet the demand of their clients of spawns. Handiest the everyday patron’s orders and those who've given their orders in advance should avail in their spawn merchandise. Stroll – in clients had been no longer entertained maximum of the time because the spawns that they produce had been reserved for orders. Kingfisher faculty of commercial enterprise and finance mushroom farm – a pre-feasibility study page 24 the place of their commercial enterprise is inside the a ways end of a compound. New clients who have heard approximately their commercial enterprise may have a difficult time seeking out their vicinity. They don’t even have signal forums indicating that they are spawn makers. 2. Gabriel velasco pias, mapandan spawn maker, mushroom manufacturer strengths skilled in terms of cultivating mushrooms. They were working for 32 years already. Improvement on their operations was accomplished because of their preceding reviews. ?? the location in their enterprise offers them competitive advantage. Their administrative center is passable via any shape of automobile and is right in the front of the principle avenue. Weaknesses they had been inconsistent on their supply of spawns to customers; and mushroom merchandise to sellers. ?? inefficient on the subject of their operations. They were the use of two strain cookers but can produce much less spawns as compared to other spawn makers who use handiest one pressure cooker. They can produce 1,440 bottles of spawn a day the usage of pressure cookers that has a maximum ability of 240 bottles in line with batch. They hired complete time personnel and several kids. D. Marketing method one of the objectives of royalty mushroom manufacturer is to sell the intake of mushrooms. This aim may be finished thru studies, advertising, exposure, vending, purchaser training and government relations. Royalty mushroom producer kingfisher college of commercial enterprise and finance mushroom farm – a pre-feasibility examine page 25 might additionally make connections with mushroom growers in the province in addition to outdoor pangasinan so that you can reach the goal market of our planting spawn products. The commercial enterprise could also touch the present sellers of mushroom products in pangasinan who will serve as our advertising distribution channels for our mushroom merchandise. E. Aggressive approach royalty mushroom manufacturer will create aggressive benefits through nice, customer support, and consistent deliver of mushroom merchandise. The enterprise will be the usage of the following technique for it to establish competitive advantage against its competitors. ?? analyzer technique this method creates a competitive enterprise approach that is based totally on evaluating the successes of competitors. The analyzer processes makes a speciality of tries to replicate, and make enhancements upon, successful services and products supplied through the competition. ?? fee leadership method this approach creates a competitive business approach this is primarily based on the prices related to production the product or providing the service. The fee management approach concentrates on retaining fees low. With lower prices, the enterprise can offer prices which might be lower than the competition, consequently presenting more fee to the consumer. 14 the proponents agree with that the above strategies would assist the business to construct competitive advantages in opposition to its competition. Using these procedures, the commercial enterprise might be differentiated from different present mushroom in relation to the first-class in their merchandise which are to be offered at much decrease expenses. 14 kingfisher faculty of enterprise and finance mushroom farm – a pre-feasibility take a look at web page 26 bankruptcy 5 technical feasibility a. Mushroom cultivation system mushroom farming consists of 4 main sports. Every of those activities is carried out in many extraordinary ways. The approach to be used in each activity relies on the choice of the mushroom growers based totally on to what form of mushroom to cultivate and considering additionally the place of the business. Each of the important sports in mushroom farming may be performed by using special people or corporations or may be completed by using handiest one entity or group (independent mushroom manufacturer). The four most important sports in mushroom farming have been: 1. Starter and substarters production 2. Planting spawn production three. Mushroom cultivation 4. Harvest and post harvest processing i. Starter and substarters manufacturing the starter tradition (or natural culture) is a mycelium of a mushroom that grows in a substrate or an agar medium. It is able to be made from a sparkling and healthy fruiting body or received from a spawn manufacturer or laboratory. There are many sorts of agar medium used. A number of these are rice bran decoction and pda medium (potato, dextrose, and agar). ?? preparing pda mediums a) put together substances: potatoes: 200 gr. Dextrose: 20 gr. Agar powder: 20 gr. Water: 1 liter. Cotton (gauze) word: visually test potatoes for spots or rot. Buy dextrose and agar of commercial grade kingfisher college of enterprise and finance mushroom farm – a pre-feasibility look at web page 27 b) wash and cut potatoes into one centimeter cubes; go away on or take away the pores and skin. Clean small flat bottles. Area potatoes in one liter of water. Simmer for 15 – 20 mins. C) take away potatoes & maintain the broth as clear as feasible. Add water to broth to attain one liter of liquid pda. Deliver water to range. Add dextrose observed by means of agar. Stir continuously with regular velocity until completely dissolved. D) pour liquid pda in bottle until you reach five – 10 mm high. Plug bottle with cotton. Area bottles in autoclave at 121 o c for 20 – half-hour to ensure whole sterilization. Let cool right down to round 37 o c. E) place bottles in slanted position as to boom surface location of the medium. Pda must come close to the neck but ought to now not touch the cotton plug. After pda medium is settled in bottle, transfer all bottles to easy shelf inside the smooth room. Take a look at for contamination. ?? tissue way of life (making starters) a) prepare materials: special needle (insulated take care of) alcohol lamp and alcohol cotton (gauze) fits or lighter bottles with pda uv lamp laminar float cabinet (or blanketed environment) b) pick a sturdy mushroom for tradition. Wholesome, no longer too mature, not too young. Not too humid (at the least 2-3 hours after watering). With a stiff stalk (ensure it's far easy and far from any infected mushroom) c) smooth the room, all vital tools, inside and outside the laminar glide cabinet with alcohol. Switch pda bottles and necessary tools into the chamber. Kingfisher college of business and finance mushroom farm – a pre-feasibility examine page 28 d) region all cleaned materials inside laminar go with the flow. Activate uv lamp and laminar glide. After 10-15 mins, turn off uv lamp but leave laminar go with the flow in the course of the operation. Clean each arms and bottles with alcohol and insert arms into the cupboard. E) maintain needle with 2 palms in a 45o-degree attitude, flame needle to disinfect till the needle turns pink. Make certain it does not contact any floor after flaming. F) whilst needle cools down (15-20 seconds – preserve needle now not to touch anything or area it at the easy surface of a pitcher). The use of different arms, tear mushroom lengthwise (do no longer use knife to reduce). With the needle, reduce a small piece (2 mm x 2 mm) of fleshy tissue from in the mushroom (within the center between the cap and the stalk). Make certain that it is clean and did now not contact the out of doors of the mushroom. G) flame across the mouth of the bottle. The usage of other palms, put off cotton plug of pda bottle in the front of flame to comfortable against contamination. H) insert the needle within the bottle and inoculate via putting small piece of reduce mushroom in the center of the pda’s surface. Make certain the piece of mushroom does not touch some thing before entering the pda bottle. Close bottle immediately close to the flame with cotton plug. (Be aware: the lowest of the bottle ought to continually be lower than the mouth of the bottle and the mouth of the bottle have to remain close to the flame at all times.) I) label bottles and imply: date, kind of mushroom, mother spawn #. Preserve pda bottles with mycelium on easy shelf. After mycelium covers entire pda medium, keep mature mycelium in cool area or inside the refrigerator in the vegetables segment. Kingfisher college of business and finance mushroom farm – a pre-feasibility observe web page 29 tissue tradition (making substarter or mom spawn) due to the extraordinarily sensitive nature of tissue tradition, it's far incredibly endorsed that tissue tradition be done in just a few bottles of pda considering that there is high hazard of contamination. Then, numerous bottles of pda can be prepared from the extremely pure mycelium. A) with the needle, cut a small piece (five mm x 5 mm) of mycelium on pda make sure that the pda isn't contaminated. B) flame across the mouth of the new pda bottle. The use of other arms, get rid of cotton plug of pda bottle in the front of flame to secure in opposition to contamination. C) insert the needle inside the bottle and inoculate with the aid of putting small piece of pda mycelium on the middle of the pda’s surface. Make certain the mycelium pda does not touch some thing earlier than coming into the pda bottle. D) close bottle straight away close to the flame with cotton plug be aware: the bottom of the bottle need to usually be lower than the mouth of the bottle and the mouth of the bottle must continue to be near the flame at all times. E) label bottles and imply: date, type of mushroom, mother spawn #. F) whether or not from tissue lifestyle or pda to pda, from the time of incubation to full increase mycelium will take about 10 – 15 days. (Depending on species). G) keep pda bottles with mycelium on clean shelf. Check contamination with the aid of other fungi within the bottle regular. Also check boom fee. Kingfisher faculty of commercial enterprise and finance mushroom farm – a pre-feasibility take a look at web page 30 ii. Planting spawn production the mushroom “seed” (propagation fabric) is usually called spawn. If good great spawn of the favored mushroom species can be acquired at an inexpensive fee, it would be wiser to pay attention on the mushroom growing procedure. If not, spawn will ought to be produced or elevated via the mushroom grower. 15 there were types of spawn, the mother spawn and the planting spawn. The mom spawns (substarters) had been made immediately from the natural culture (starter). Those mother spawns will then be used to make multiples of planting spawn. Planting spawn on the other hand became the real spawn used to grow mushrooms. The subsequent are the steps executed in order to make mother spawns: put together substrate bottles pasteurize the substrate bottles inoculating substrate bottles put together substrate bottles put together substances: saw dust tobacco midribs empty bottles (or pp. Plastic baggage) area the saw dirt beneath the solar to permit it dry. ?? soak the tobacco midribs on water. After three days of soaking, wash the tobacco midribs once more with water. Chop the tobacco midribs into tiny bits. ?? mix the chopped tobacco midribs with the dried saw dirt. Make sure to mix well the elements. (Do not forget the moisture content material of the components.) ?? fill the empty bottles/ luggage with the substrate combination of noticed dust and tobacco midribs. Make sure that the substrates within the bottles are compact. Make an entire on the center 15 - a small scale – mushroom cultivation kingfisher faculty of enterprise and finance mushroom farm – a pre-feasibility study web page 31 of the bottle nearly to the bottom of the bottle by means of using a stick or a ½ inch diameter % pipe. Area the covers of the bottles. Ensure that the covers have a tiny hollow in the center. ?? sterilize the substrate bottles test the water content material in the strain cooker. Refill it as much as the level of water required. ?? place the bottles/ luggage with the substrate combination in the stress cooker (autoclave). ?? light the burner or fireplace up the woods to start pasteurizing the bottles inside the autoclave. Autoclave with a maximum capacity of a hundred and sixty bottles in line with batch would take about 30 minutes before the bottles would be sterilized very well. The time must begin when the strain in the cooker reaches 18 or 20 psi (kilos per sq. Inch) after 30 minutes, put the fire out. When the pressure within the cooker has lowered down, open the cooker and take the bottles out. ?? inoculating mother spawn into planting spawn baggage/bottles prepare substances: alcohol lamp and alcohol bottles with pda (substarter) pasteurized substrate bags/bottles unique needle (insulated take care of) matches or lighter square paper and rubber band kingfisher college of commercial enterprise and finance mushroom farm – a pre-feasibility study page 32 easy room with broom or dirt vacuum. Rub the floor with disinfecting answer. ?? deliver substrate bottles from pressure cooker to inoculation location. Permit the bottles cool first. Mild alcohol lamp. Disinfect palms and pasteurized substrate bottles with alcohol. ?? take bottle of agar medium included with mycelium (all white coloration). ?? flame around the bottleneck. Open bottle very close to flame to take out air from internal. ?? using the transfer needle, reduce a tiny slice of mycelium plug at the bottle of substarter then put it at the middle of the substrate bottles. Act right away and with very little movement. Then close the bottles as speedy as possible. Repeat for all bottles. ?? leave bottle close to the flame until all baggage had been inoculated. Then near the bottle. ?? following inoculation of all bottles, location easy square paper to cowl the pinnacle of the bottles and tie with rubber band. Then carry bottles to incubation room. After numerous days, mycelium might scatter at the substrate bottle. The substrate bottles containing the mycelium at the moment are what we call the planting spawn. ?? packing the planting spawns mushroom spawns had been typically positioned on bottles. These planting spawns have been then transferred to 7x14 inches polypropylene plastic luggage. Five bottles of planting spawn might be needed to make one bag of planting spawn. Some pawn manufacturers alternatively place the substrate combos in spawn baggage and now not in bottles. This approach is greater green because it gets rid of the work of moving planting spawns from bottles to spawn luggage. This technique can even save you the distortion of the increase of mycelium as a result of moving. Planting spawn in bags were then offered to the growers for personal home page 20 to twenty-five each. Kingfisher faculty of business and finance mushroom farm – a pre-feasibility have a look at web page 33 iii. Mushroom cultivation the two manufacturing technology for fruiting body production which might be being followed by using the growers encompass outside and indoor strategies. Sixteen a) out of doors cultivation of paddy straw mushrooms the conventional outdoor approach makes use of the bed-type technique and utilizes some of agricultural wastes like dried paddy straw, rice stubbles, water lily, banana leaves, and stalks (reyes and abella, 1993). The usage of these wastes as mushroom substrates relies upon on their neighborhood availability. The following is a description of the step by step manner for the preparation of mushroom cultivation beds website choice and training growers need to choose a place this is unfastened from potential insect pests which includes ants, termites and rodents. The chosen website have to rather be below timber with a huge canopy. With a view to ensure that the chosen site is pest unfastened, growers can spread rice hulls onto the place and burn them until they grow to be ashes. ?? series and coaching of bedding substances the bedding materials collected from the field must be sun dried. Growers should trim and bundle the substrates into bundles 12 inches lengthy with a diameter of 2inches. The bundled substrates have to be soaked for twelve hours and washed with smooth water. Bedding substances consisted of 45cm long and 10cm huge bundled rice straw or bundled banana leaves. Rice straw that was tough to package turned into chopped and molded into bed. Every 2m bed 16 - chapter eleven, mushrooms for the tropics, developing paddy straw mushrooms kingfisher college of commercial enterprise and finance mushroom farm – a pre-feasibility take a look at page 34 would want at least 60 bundles and every grower had to prepare an estimate of about 20-40 beds in line with month. ?? layering of bundled substrates into mattress and spawning the bundled substrate must be drained of extra water to obtain sixty five moisture content material. Growers must pile the bundled substrates one after the opposite into the bed paperwork. On top of every layer, spawn have to be sprinkled thinly over the bundled substrates. A super bed size consists of six layers and has a duration of 3 meters. ?? incubation and fruiting a plastic sheet need to be used to cowl the whole mushroom bed. This sheet continues the precise temperature for the mycelial ramification (30-35℃) and fruiting body formation (28-30℃). It typically takes 10-14 days before the primary flush of marketable fruiting our bodies (button stage) come out from the threshold of the mushroom bed. Kingfisher school of business and finance mushroom farm – a pre-feasibility take a look at page 35 harvesting with naked hands, growers should harvest the button degrees of paddy straw mushroom by definitely pulling the cluster out from the bed. B) indoor cultivation of paddy straw mushrooms a more advanced generation that is now gaining hobby among potential growers is the indoor manufacturing generation. This approach, which utilizes paddy straw as the main substrate, has three salient capabilities: composting, pasteurization, and cultivation interior a mushroom house. Composting is an crucial procedure that lets in the microbial decomposers to loosen the tensile strength of paddy straw. This method additionally prepares the paddy straw to be easily colonized via mycelia of paddy straw mushroom. Pasteurization is a vital manner that eliminates the unwanted microorganisms which could compete with paddy straw mushroom all through the production right. This process also renders the composted paddy straw greater easily capable of be successfully permeated through the mushroom mycelia. The cultivation of mushrooms inside a growing residence lets in for the manipulate of the fluctuations of temperature and relative humidity which can be risky to the mycelial growth and fruiting body manufacturing. ?? soaking rice straw of any type can be used as substrate for the indoor cultivation of paddy straw mushroom. Rice stubbles may also be used. The rice straw have to be soaked for 12 hours in easy water. This process loosens the substrates as a prelude to composting. Kingfisher faculty of enterprise and finance mushroom farm – a pre-feasibility look at web page 36 composting the previously soaked substrates ought to be piled up and sprinkled with 1 molasses and zero.5 whole fertilizer. Growers have to cowl the pile of substrates with plastic sheets and compost the pile for 14 days. On the 7th day, the partially composted substrates should be became with a spading fork as a way to ensure even composting. At this level, the populace of thermophilic decomposers starts to pile up. Growers ought to now add 1 agricultural lime, update the plastic sheets and retain the composting system till finishing the specified fourteen day composting length. ?? crating and steaming growers have to dispense the composted substrates on 12 x 24 x 18 inches timber crates that are open on all sides. Moisture content of the substrate have to be sixty five (no drippings of water while squeezed among palms). Growers need to ensure that the substrates are compactly positioned in the wooden crates, and need to deliver the crated substrates into the steaming room through piling them one on pinnacle of the alternative. Growers need to then begin introducing the steam into the mushroom residence. Steaming typically lasts from 4 to six hours, and the temperature ought to maintained at 60-eighty℃. ?? spawning for the tropics 252 the subsequent morning after steaming the substrates, growers need to check the temperature of the steamed substrates. The temperature have to be 30℃ so as no longer to harm the mycelia of paddy straw mushroom. ?? incubation and fruiting in an effort to inspire mycelial proliferation of paddy straw mushroom, the mushroom house have to be sealed. In the course of this degree, it's miles very vital to hold the appropriate temperature for mycelial ramification (30-35℃) and not using a air flow and light. The spread of kingfisher faculty of enterprise and finance mushroom farm – a pre-feasibility examine web page 37 mycelia takes from seven to 10 days after spawning. After this era, growers ought to test the fame of the substrates. Fruiting initials should begin to appear. At this point, the temperature need to be diminished from 35 to twenty-eight℃. This may be accomplished through sprinkling smooth water on the floor of the mushroom growing residence. Three to 5 days after the appearance of those fruiting initials, the first harvest of the button degrees of paddy straw mushroom can be executed. Iv. Harvest and publish harvest processing harvesting mushrooms ought to be finished with affordable care and right handling. Mushroom merchandise had been surely sensitive and surprisingly perishable. A small bump on a mushroom could purpose it to rot. The subsequent were the things to keep in mind in harvesting mushrooms. ?? search for mature mushrooms. Pick out gently via grasping stalk and pulling out slowly. (Observe: mushrooms need to be harvested on the maximum suitable time. If too small, they cannot fetch an excellent price. If too massive, their conservation length is reduced; they may be not so candy and tasty.) ?? positioned mushrooms in order in a basket, about five-8 kg per basket. Trim and peel through slicing at the bottom of the stalk to make the mushroom easy. Vicinity mushrooms in basket. ?? weigh all mushrooms and label. (Notice: a bag of mushroom planting spawn must yield among 350 – 450 grams of mushrooms in 4 to five flushes. Planting baggage can simplest be used once due to the fact each bag loses a whole lot in their weight after they have exhausted their manufacturing. Planting spawns that is used for the second time is predicted to yield poorly and is greater uncovered pests and infection of different sorts of fungus) kingfisher college of business and finance mushroom farm – a pre-feasibility look at web page 38 packaging earlier than packaging, ensure all mushrooms are properly trimmed. For selling clean mushrooms available on the market, little or no packaging is required. Mushrooms are weighed and placed in paper or plastic baggage. Mushrooms can't hold for long and consequently all mushrooms need to be bought speedy following harvesting. They could hold in a fridge for 12 – 24 hours. To avoid humidity from gathering inside the bag, place mushrooms in luggage and blow air in them. Tie bag with rubber band. If no fridge is available, vicinity mushrooms on banana leaves in a groovy region, or put them on top of water beneath the colour in a properly-ventilated area. Advertising mushrooms may be bought at once to clients or given to whole dealers. The income will be reduced while coping with an intermediate but if an excellent agreement can be made, it also saves on charges related to advertising and marketing. Costs of mushrooms will depend upon the season and the kind. Different seasons will give higher yields for sure mushrooms. Sales shops: from the farm – make sure people recognise you domesticate mushrooms community neighborhood marketplace neighboring markets eating places inns supermarkets kingfisher school of enterprise and finance mushroom farm – a pre-feasibility examine page 39 fine control: mushrooms ought to be easy - trimming could be very essential acquire young mushrooms - longer shelf lifestyles - higher tasting tip: harvesting after watering at least 2-3 hours will conserve mushrooms longer. Inoculated mushroom bags also can be bought and generate supplemental profits. Retaining mushrooms due to the fact mushrooms are exceptionally perishable, strategies in conservation techniques are important. Drying is a superb option because it lets in mushrooms for use in cooking. Drying can be executed with electric and solar dryers. However, this can't be executed for the duration of the rainy season considering dried mushrooms could soak up humidity at once and consequently their conservation cannot be assured. Fresh paddy straw mushrooms may be processed and sold to stores and restaurants as completed products. Many merchandise may be made with mushrooms. Aside from being delivered to soups and sauces, mushrooms may be converted into sweets, cookies, goodies, diverse snacks, and also can be dried. But, centers in rural regions are not always capable of helping such processing strategies. Kingfisher college of enterprise and finance mushroom farm – a pre-feasibility observe web page 40 b. Manner waft charts determine five.1 system flow (mushroom and spawn manufacturing) table 5.1 gantt chart (showing precise responsibilities towards time) harvest and submit harvest processing this involves responsibilities together with harvesting, packaging, advertising, nice manage and conservation of mushroom produce. Mushroom cultivation this consists of preparation of the region of cultivation as well as the materials to be used in mushroom cultivation. It's also tasks which include layering of bundled substrates into mushroom beds, spawning, incubation, and monitoring the temparature and moisture content on the mushroom bed. Making planting spawns substrate bottles are then organized. The substarters that were made will then be in oculated on the substrate bottles to make a mom lifestyle. Mother lifestyle will now be used to make plantinf spawns. Planting spawns have been the real spawns used on growing mushrooms. Making starter and substarters starters have been made from a clean mushroom's stalk embedded on an agar medium. If a starter's mycelium covers the entire agar medium, these have been inoculated to some other agar medium to make substarters. Kingfisher college of commercial enterprise and finance mushroom farm – a pre-feasibility examine web page forty one schedules of operation starter and substarter production (monthly) making pda bottles 1 liter of potato, dextrose, and agar (pda) combination makes 25 – 30 bottles of pda medium. (Substances had to make 1 liter of combination is shown at the previous pages; see “making ready pda mediums”, pp. 26) pda medium bottles might be stored on clean cabinets till required for starter and substarter productions 1 st batch – day 1 of the month 2 nd batch – day eight of the month three rd batch – day 15 of the month 4 th batch – day 22 of the month (note: each batch will use five liters of pda combination to make 125 – a hundred and fifty bottles of pda medium.) Monthly prod: 500 to 600 bottles making starter cultures organized pda mediums (in bottles) are introduced at once to the inoculation and incubation room wherein a tiny piece of freshly reduce mushroom is inoculated in every bottle. ?? making starter culture is a radical manner. It calls for a clean working environment and unique execution of duties. A little infection at the bottles could cause spoilage. Preliminary operations results to fifteen – 20 of fulfillment. But continuous manufacturing would boom the assignment’s understanding in making starters and would increase the percentage of a success tissue cultures. ?? the maximum of the 1 st batch of prepared pda bottles might be used in making starters. Approximately a hundred bottles of the prepared pda mediums might be used. ?? incubation of pda mediums with inoculated mycelium lasts for 15 days. During this time, the fungi of the mushroom need to have covered the entire surface of the bottles. ?? 15 to 20 bottles of a success tissue cultures are predicted. (Note: a success tissue cultures are saved on smooth shelves in the incubation room. Those cultures might be used in making substarters. Contaminated bottles are removed from the cabinets.) Kingfisher school of commercial enterprise and finance mushroom farm – a pre-feasibility observe page forty two making substarters effectively made pure cultures are then inoculated to new pda bottles. Tiny pieces of fungus from pda bottles are transferred to a new pda bottle to make substarters or mom spawn.. ?? incubation of substarters will also last for 15 days. ?? spoilage from contaminations is low in making substarters if obligations have been nicely completed. However in comparison from making natural cultures (starters), making substarters usually consequences approximately 90 to 95 fulfillment. ?? one starter tradition could make 25 to 30 substarter cultures. ?? final batches of organized pda medium bottles had been to be used in making substarters or mother spawn. The successful pure cultures are expected to be ate up at the closing four hundred to 500 bottles of unused pda medium. ?? a hit substarter cultures predicted is about 360 to 450 bottles. Planting spawn production (month-to-month) substrate bags / bottles production one bottle of the task may be using two autoclave or stress steam sterilizers. One autoclave can sterilize ten batches having a hundred and sixty substrate bottles per batch (32 to 35 spawn bags). ?? each day prod.: Seven-hundred spawn baggage (35 spawn luggage x 10 batches x 2) weekly prod.: 3500 spawn luggage (700 bags x 5 working days) month-to-month: 14,000 spawn bags (3500 luggage x four weeks) inoculation and incubation of planting spawn inoculation of mother spawn (substarters) into prepared substrates (spawn baggage) makes the so known as seeds in mushroom cultivation or the planting spawns. Substrate luggage with inoculated mycelium will be incubated for five to fifteen days. ?? planting spawns that were incubated for 5 days can now be supplied to mushroom growers for planting. But for better yield, planting spawns ought to be incubated for about 15 to 20 days. Full - grown planting spawns yields higher that immature or over matured spawns. Spawn selection is likewise a critical aspect on mushroom cultivation. Kingfisher faculty of business and finance mushroom farm – a pre-feasibility examine web page 43 mushroom cultivation the proponents have determined that a part of the planting spawns produced would be used in mushroom cultivation. It's been mentioned that 40 of the planting spawns produced will be used for mushroom growing under normal conditions, the primary harvesting of mushroom might be realized 10 to fourteen days after planting. The harvesting can also remaining for three consecutive days (approximately 3 to four flushes). After harvesting, leave the mushroom beds for one-and-a- half month to allow any other mushroom flushes to be harvested. ?? a five meters mushroom mattress at 480 to 500 bundles of dried banana will need round 10 bags of mushroom spawn (800 grams. /Bag). It’s expected minimum yield is 10 kgs. To 12.Five kgs*. (*Primarily based on the estimate given through existing mushroom growers and mr. Rey rivera – stids, dti - pangasinan) mushroom production (monthly): fifty six,000 kgs. To 70,000 kgs (5,600 luggage = 40 x 14,000 baggage; 5,six hundred x 10kgs. = 50,000; 5,six hundred x 12.5kgs = 70,000) kingfisher faculty of business and finance mushroom farm – a pre-feasibility study page 44 c. Plant layout royalty mushroom producer’s farm layout (mango orchard) plant layout of spawn manufacturing residence kingfisher college of business and finance mushroom farm – a pre-feasibility take a look at page forty five d. Gadget / substances wished equipments description autoclave (stress steam sterilizer) – used to sterilize substrate bottles. About 30 bottles to one hundred sixty bottles ability. (Manufacturer: mr. William cabanlig, mapandan pangasinan) laminar flow cupboard - with heap clear out 1cuft. Utilized in making starter and substarters. (Non-obligatory: a near surroundings would do.) Weighing scale - 1 set 1 kg, 1 set 100 kg glassware (bottles) – substrate container for spawns sprinklers, water hose, water drums – used for watering substrate beds to make sure that moisture requirements had been met. Materials and supplies needed description sawdust for substrate tobacco midribs for substrate hay stalk for substrate magnesium sulfate, calcium sulfate, calcium carbonate, pumice, rice bran for substrate glucose, gelatin, potato for tissue lifestyle polypropylene plastics (pp) for covering of mushroom beds (plastic sheets) and packaging of planting spawns (7x14’ pp) cotton plugs for plugging bottles rubber bands and 7x7 square paper for ultimate bottles laboratory elements substances used for making starters and substarters. Kitchenware for making pda mediums (tissue subculture) utilities needed energy water fuel phone kingfisher faculty of commercial enterprise and finance mushroom farm – a pre-feasibility observe page 46 e. Preliminary funding requirements description charge spawn production residence (spawn bagging location, small laboratory room, incubation and inoculation room and storage rooms) personal home page two hundred,000.00 autoclave (pressure steam sterilizers) 12,000.00 laboratory equipments (laminar glide cupboard, alcohol lamps, needles, weighing scale, different spawn manufacturing materials) eight,000.00 watering equipments (water drums, water tank, sprinklers, water hose) 7,000.00 kitchen utensils (stove, casserole, dipper, basins, knife, reducing board, funnel, and so on) 5,000.00 preliminary running costs raw materials (tobacco midribs, sawdust, dried banana bundles) elements (alcohol, bottles, 7x14” pp baggage, plastic sheets, lpg, and so forth) wages & profits for people transportation charges 35,000.00 5,000.00 14,000.00 four,000.00 overall preliminary funding necessities 300,00.00 (* the fee for autoclave (pressure steam sterilizers) turned into based totally on the current price for this object this is to be had at mapandan, pangasinan. Other equipments and corresponding costs had been primarily based on dost-trc: , august 2010, adjusted to suit contemporary charges for those objects based totally at the fees in distinct markets including department stores, hardware, laboratory and products shops, in addition to farms that sells their agricultural wastes.) Kingfisher school of commercial enterprise and finance mushroom farm – a pre-feasibility look at page forty seven bankruptcy 6 control feasibility a. Organizational structure b. Obligations and obligations 1. General supervisor the overall manager might be answerable for the general health of the business. He/she can act as the troubleshooter for the company internally (whilst there's warfare of hobby among personnel) and externally (when a business rival tries to queer the pitch for the company). Being the overall supervisor, he/she will be able to additionally manipulate price range, universal supervision of the commercial enterprise assignment, and keeping the staff in excellent spirit a good way to cause them to deliver off their first-rate to the enterprise organisation. 2. Mushroom cultivation manager the supervisor specializing in mushroom cultivation can be the one in-charged of monitoring the cultivation and developing of mushrooms. Collectively with a full time grower (one specializing in oyster mushroom and the alternative is focusing on straw mushrooms), he/she will follow the fine techniques and techniques on how mushrooms will grow and yield abundantly. 3. Spawn production supervisor the supervisor that specialize in spawn production is the one in-charged at the production of planting spawns. He/she should be informed on how to make fine spawns. He/she can paintings collectively with full time employee and 3 to five part time employees (kids or out of fashionable supervisor muchroom cultivation supervisor 1 complete-time mushroom grower spawn manufacturing manager 1 full time spawn maker three employees / employees liaison and shopping officer accountant kingfisher faculty of business and finance mushroom farm – a pre-feasibility study web page forty eight faculty youths) so that it will make excellent fine planting spawns that could yield excellent excellent mushrooms. Spawns produced will either be sold to other mushroom growers or transferred to the only assigned on mushroom cultivation for developing. Four. Liaison and buying officer the liaison officer could be the only to address mushroom dealers and growers so as for the enterprise to have right and lasting courting with its advertising channels and consumers. And since the liaison officer is also the purchasing officer, he/she will be able to also be coping with the uncooked materials and gadget suppliers of the commercial enterprise. He/she has to search for suppliers that offer accurate equipments and uncooked substances at the bottom feasible costs, in order for the commercial enterprise to have low working costs. Five. Accountant the accountant is in-charged in shooting all the transactions of the enterprise, recording each transaction well, and communicating the outcomes of the enterprise’ transactions as a way to make sound selection making for the company. 6. Full time people full time people are taken into consideration because the ordinary employees of the enterprise. Those employees will have distinctive obligations and responsibilities. The subsequent are the tasks that handiest a complete time worker have been authorized to do: obligations no. Of complete-time worker needed 1. Developing mushrooms (for straw mushroom) making ready the mushroom beds putting spawns on mushroom beds keeping and monitoring cultivated mushrooms in mushroom beds 1 full time employee kingfisher college of enterprise and finance mushroom farm – a pre-feasibility examine page forty nine 2. Spawn manufacturing mixing agricultural wastes (saw dust, tobacco midribs, etc.) ?? sterilizing bottles packed with sawdust in a pressure cooker 1 complete time employee 7. People / people worker's / employees are liable for a few fundamental obligations in mushroom manufacturing. Those minor obligations may be accomplished by way of everyone (those may be accomplished by means of kids or disabled, for this reason developing employment for out of school youths and disabled). The following were a number of the minor duties that part time workers can do: duties no. Of employee needed 1. Filling of substrates in a bottle (for spawn of straw mushroom) 3 to 5 employees / workers c. Manpower necessities and repayment people salary charge complete time worker (spawn production) php four hundred.00 / day full time worker (mushroom cultivation) personal home page 200.00 / day three – 5 workers (filling of bottles) personal home page zero.10 / bottle the wage charges stated above have been the modern prices utilized by currently present unbiased mushroom manufacturers in pangasinan (consistent with the spawn producers that the proponents have interviewed in mapandan, pangasinan).